It is the process of developing and implementing a master plan that facilitates the distribution of your property after your death and according to your goals and objectives.
At your death, you leave behind the people that you love and all your worldly goods. Without advance planning, you have no say about who gets what, and more of your property may go to others, like the federal government, instead of your loved ones. If you care about (1) how and to whom your property is distributed, and (2) ensuring that your property is preserved for your loved ones, you need to know more about estate planning.
As a process, estate planning requires a little effort on your part. First, you'll want to come to terms with dying, at least to a degree that you can deal with the necessary planning. Understandably, your death can be a very uncomfortable subject, but unfortunately, the discussions in this area are full of references to your death, so it really can't be avoided. Some statements may seem too businesslike and unfeeling, but tiptoeing around the subject of dying will only make the planning process more difficult.
Estate planning may be important to individuals with a wide range of financial situations. In fact, it may be more important if you have a smaller estate because the final expenses will have a much greater impact on your estate. Wasting even a single asset may cause your loved ones to suffer from a lack of financial resources.
Your master plan can consist of strategies that are simple and inexpensive to implement (e.g., a will or life insurance). If your estate is larger, the estate planning process can be more complex and expensive.
Implementing most strategies will probably require you to hire professional help of some kind, an attorney, an accountant, a trust officer, or an insurance agent, for example. If your estate is large or complex, you should consult with an estate planning expert such as a tax attorney or financial planner for advice before the implementation stage.
In deciding on your course of action, you should always consider whether the benefit of the strategy outweighs the cost of its implementation.
You may need to plan your estate especially if:
Designing a plan is a process that is unique to each estate owner. Don't be intimidated or overwhelmed at the prospect. Even the most complex plan can be achieved if you proceed step by step. Remember, the peace of mind that comes with developing a successful estate plan is worth the time, trouble, and expense.
There are many estate planning strategies, including some that are implemented inter vivos (during life), such as making gifts, and others post-mortem (after death), such as disclaimers. Before you choose which strategies are right for you, you need to understand your particular circumstances.
Gather and analyze the facts
Understanding your particular circumstances results from gathering and analyzing the facts. The following questions may help you to accomplish this. If they are not easy to answer, you may have to make some estimates based on reasonable assumptions and expectations.
Information regarding your financial condition
• What is your current income?
• What is your income likely to be in the future?
• How much do you spend each year?
• What are your expenses likely to be in the future?
• What are your current assets and debts?
• Are your assets currently owned solely or jointly?
• What estate planning strategies have you already implemented?
• Who are the family members you intend to benefit?
• What are the needs of each family member?
Decide what your goals and objectives are in light of your particular circumstances and in light of the factors that may affect your estate. The primary factors that may affect your estate are your beneficiaries, taxes, probate, liquidity, and incapacity.
One of the largest potential expenses your estate may have to pay is taxes, which may include federal transfer taxes, state death taxes, and federal income taxes.
Federal transfer taxes--The federal transfer taxes include (1) the federal gift tax and estate tax and (2) the federal generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax.
State death taxes--States also impose their own death taxes. You should be aware of what the death tax laws are in your state and how they may affect your estate. There are three types of state death taxes: (1) estate tax, (2) inheritance tax, and (3) credit estate tax (also called a sponge tax or pickup tax). Some states also impose their own gift tax and/or generation skipping transfer tax.
Tip: Most states that imposed a credit estate tax have "decoupled" from the federal system (i.e., they're imposing some form of stand-alone estate tax.)
Tip: The federal system allows a deduction for state death taxes for the estates of persons dying in 2005 and later. Prior to 2005, a credit was available.
Federal income taxes--In the estate planning context, you should be aware of three federal income tax considerations:
Probate is the court-supervised process of proving, allowing, and administering your will. The probate process can be time-consuming, expensive, and open to public scrutiny. Avoiding probate may be one of your most important goals. To develop a successful avoidance strategy, you'll need to understand how the probate process works, how to estimate probate costs, and what is subject to probate.
Estate liquidity refers to the ability of your estate to pay taxes and other costs that arise after your death from cash and cash alternatives. If your property is mostly nonliquid (e.g., real estate, business interests), your estate may be forced to sell assets to meet its obligations as they become due. This could result in an economic loss, or your family selling assets that you intended for them to keep. Therefore, planning for estate liquidity should be one of your most important estate planning objectives.
Planning for incapacity is a vital yet often overlooked aspect of estate planning. Who will manage your property for you when you can no longer handle these responsibilities? You need to ask and answer this question because the consequences of being unprepared may have a devastating effect on your estate and loved ones. You should include plans for incapacity as a part of your overall estate plan.
Your goals and objectives are personal, but you can't formulate a successful plan without a clear and precise understanding of what they are. They can be based on your particular circumstances and the factors that may affect your estate, as discussed earlier, but your feelings and desires are just as important. The following are some goals and objectives you might consider:
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