An annuity is a contract between you (the purchaser or owner) and an insurance company. In its simplest form, you pay money to an annuity issuer, and the issuer then pays an income stream back to you or to a named beneficiary. Annuities are generally used to provide income in retirement.
In an annuity, your money is tax deferred until you withdraw it. The tradeoff is that if you take your money out before age 59½, you'll usually have to pay a 10 percent early withdrawal penalty to the IRS, unless an exception applies.
Most life insurance companies sell annuities. You pay the insurance company a sum of money, either all at once or incrementally. The type of annuity you own determines whether your money earns a fixed amount or an amount that depends on the equities in which the annuity is invested. At a designated time chosen by you, the insurance company generally begins to send you regular distributions from the annuity's account. Or, you may be able to withdraw the money over time or in one lump sum.
Variable annuities are long-term investments suitable for retirement funding and are subject to market fluctuations and investment risk including the possibility of loss of principal. Variable annuities contain fees and charges including, but not limited to mortality and expense risk charges, sales and surrender (early withdrawal) charges, administrative fees and charges for optional benefits and riders. Variable annuities are sold by prospectus. You should consider the investment objectives, risk, charges and expenses carefully before investing. The prospectus, which contains this and other information about the variable annuity, can be obtained from the insurance company issuing the variable annuity, or from your financial professional. You should read the prospectus carefully before you invest.
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